Capacity Building in Africa: cooperation with the World Bank

ICDE has over the last couple of years developed very close relationships with different departments of the World Bank. The negotiations resulted in comprehensive projects on: “DE and ICT for Teacher Development in Nigeria” (Phase 1 and 2) and in Democratic Republic of Congo (Phase 1 and 2) – “Options for application to achieve EFA goals in Sub-Saharan Africa”.

                                                                                                                                                                              The mentioned projects were carried on in 2005, but previously, projects were undertaken by ICDE in Rwanda and Ethiopia on the status of distance education and the possibilities for using it for teacher development.

The World Bank published an open tender in March 2004 and ICDE won all the projects that were offered since ICDE could offer the most comprehensive experience in Distance Education in Africa in relation to what was required to implement the projects.

 ICDE sought after the required competency among several distance education environments and experts to carry out the tasks. ICDE forwarded the name of the proposed candidates to implement the projects and the World Bank officers made the final selection of the experts.

 Projects Background:

In the face of huge and mounting pressures on education in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), distance education (DE) and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are increasingly seen as a necessary part of the solution for improved quality and access in educational provision in the region. The launch of Education for All (EFA) initiatives and the devastating impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on the teaching profession have brought a new urgency to the need for distance education and other innovative approaches to meet the dramatic rise in teacher development and support requirements.  As part of its overall education assistance strategy, the Africa region of the World Bank wishes to support the development of sustainable models of applications of DE and ICT to enhance quality and access in sub-Saharan African countries.

Specifically, ICDE consultancy work dealt with the situation of Distance Education and ICT for teacher development in the following countries: Rwanda, Ethiopia (both completed in July 2004), Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Link (completed in December 2004) and Nigeria (completed in July 2005). link

Capacity Building in Ethiopia:

“DE and ICT for Teacher Development in Ethiopia - Options for application to achieve EFA goals in Sub-Saharan Africa”

Terms of Reference
Undertake an assessment of the DE and ICT situation in Ethiopia focusing on the need for teacher training at the distance. The study should take into account the work being produced by “The Higher Education Reform in Ethiopia” project carried out currently by a World Bank team.

 Dr. Greville Rumble was the consultant that chosen to undertake this project.

WORK PLAN OBJECTIVES

-  Understand the current structure of teacher education in Ethiopia
         

  • Policy
  • Provision
  •  Structure of qualifications
  • Structure of workforce
  • Knowledge-base of existing teachers
  • Needs

 - Identify and evaluate current teacher education providers in Ethiopia including programmes using DE/ICT solutions for:

  •  Pre-service initial training
  •  In-service initial training
  •  Continuing education and development of teachers

in relation to

  • General education
  • Subject knowledge
  • Knowledge of school curriculum
  • Knowledge of pedagogy
  • Practical classroom management
  • Skill development

 - Identify and evaluate current nature of, and develop potential for use of DE/ICT in support of teachers:

  • Enhancing quality of classroom delivery through delivery of resources to support classroom teaching
  • Enhancing quality of teachers work through professional training and development  

- Identify/evaluate current DE/ICT programmes in Ethiopia including centres of technical expertise 

- Identify nature of schools in Ethiopia including existing staff development programmes at schools level, and potential for use of ICT for teacher education and continuing professional development within the school environment 

- Identify through wide consultation the potential for using DE/ICT for teacher education/training in Ethiopia having regard to the work undertaken by other members of the team under section 6 of the Team Terms of Reference of the draft Technical Assistance Mission in Support of Higher Education Reform in Ethiopia.

- Identify on the basis of consultation the learning outcomes that are intended

- Identify possible technical strategies for delivery of DE/ICT based teacher education programmes to meet teacher education/training/professional development needs

  • Identify appropriate media – relating this to what is affordable and accessible in schools, having regard not only to initial start-up but to on-going viability given maintenance capabilities. Draw on work of Alfonso Oporto[1] in relation to ICTs
  • Identify strategies for development and delivery of learning resources
  • Identify strategies for learner support, face-to-face interaction, classroom monitoring, and on-going learner support and development through follow-up visits, support through the existing ‘social system’ of the school

-Identify potential resources (people, materials, support, training, networks, partnerships) 

- Identify means of establishing the legitimacy and quality of teacher education at a distance

  • Recognition/validation of training
  • Quality assurance and external validation
  • Use of advisory panels
  • Involvement in programme development
  • Assessment strategies
  • Recognition of DE/ICT obtained qualifications
  • Research on performance of teachers trained through DE/ICT 
     

Our consultant went on a mission to Ethiopia. He interviewed a variety of actors, from the Ministry officials to higher education institutions representatives and schools teachers. The outcomes with a number of recommendations are included in a special report submitted to the World Bank.

Full report ( link)

Capacity Building in Rwanda

DE and ICT for Teacher Development in Rwanda - Options for application to achieve EFA goals in Sub-Saharan Africa,

Terms of Reference
Undertake an assessment of the DE and ICT situation in Rwanda: national policy framework and initiatives on the subject, main issues and difficulties, teacher development at a distance, technologies that have been used to enhance open and distance learning and conventional education, viable technological solutions for the near future.

 WORK PLAN OBJECTIVES

 National policy framework and initiatives

  • Review current educational policies and initiatives and identify policy gaps and impediments as these might relate to distance education/online learning. E.g. parity of esteem/level playing field policies relating to recognition of qualifications, accreditation, employment
  •  Review current policies and initiatives that have a bearing on the use of technologies and ICTs in education and identify policy gaps/impediments
  • Identify policy changes/initiatives needed to implement DE/use of ICT in education, and in particular frameworks for establishing the legitimacy and quality of teacher education at a distance
  • Identify potential areas within which DE might be employed

Main issues and difficulties

·         Identify main opportunities and barriers to use of technologies/ICT to support teacher education/school improvement

 Teacher development at a distance

-       Understand the current structure of teacher education in Rwanda

  • Policy
  •  Provision
  •  Structure of qualifications
  • Structure of workforce
  • Knowledge-base of existing teachers
  • Needs

 -      Identify and evaluate current teacher education providers in Rwanda including programmes using DE/ICT solutions for:

  • Pre-service initial training
  • In-service initial training
  •  Continuing education and development of teachers

in relation to

  • General education
  • Subject knowledge
  • Knowledge of school curriculum
  • Knowledge of pedagogy
  • Practical classroom management
  • Skill development

-      Identify and evaluate current use of DE/ICT in support of teachers:

  • Enhancing quality of classroom delivery through delivery of resources to support classroom teaching
  • Enhancing quality of teachers work through professional training and development
     

-      Identify/evaluate current DE/ICT programmes in Ethiopia including centres of technical expertise

-     Identify nature of schools in Rwanda including existing staff development programmes at schools level, and potential for use of ICT for teacher education and continuing professional development within the school environment 

-     Identify through wide consultation the potential for using DE/ICT for teacher education/training in Rwanda
 

Technologies used to enhance open and distance learning and conventional learning 

·         Identify existing uses of technologies including ICTs to enhance classroom activities, deliver DE, and support online learning

·         Evaluate potential for the use of technologies/ICTs having regard to the robustness of the infrastructure and socio-economic context of use

·         Evaluate the viability of on-line and distance learning systems for greater outreach and enhanced teaching/learning experience;

·         Identify options for meeting and enriching the learning needs/experience of  students and staff;

·         Identify options for creation/expansion of on-line library services, reference materials, and inter-library partnerships.

 Viable technological solutions for the near future

-       Identify immediate/short-term viable technical strategies for delivery (in particular) of DE/ICT based teacher education programmes to meet teacher education/training/professional development needs

  • Identify appropriate media – relating this to what is affordable and accessible in schools, having regard not only to initial start-up but to on-going viability given maintenance capabilities.
  • Identify strategies for development and delivery of learning resources
  • Identify strategies for learner support, face-to-face interaction, classroom monitoring, and on-going learner support and development through follow-up visits, support through the existing ‘social system’ of the school 
     Professor Rumble with the assistance of ICDE staff developed the Rwanda project and went to Rwanda in a mission of three weeks. The outcome of this job is a report that includes a number of concrete measures and recommendations for future implementation.

Full report ( Link)

Capacity Building in Nigeria

 The Nigeria project was developed by Kjell Atle Halvorsen from NTNU.

Scope of work:

Develop a detailed Distance Education and ICT’s in education profile and a summary report for Nigeria, based on an analysis of the current status of distance education and educational applications of ICT’s in Nigeria in particular, regarding the tertiary sector and teacher training.  The analysis covers policy and practice, including national and institutional policies, legal, regulatory and funding framework, human and infrastructural capacity, including provider institutions and training programs offered. The analysis should be able to determine the match between national aspirations for the application of DE and ICT’s in education and actual implementation. The analysis was conducted through desk research, based on documents provided specifically for the purpose and other documents available through public sources.

          The Full report on this project is available here. link

Capacity Building in Democratic Republic of Congo

Projects: Phases I and II

The nature of the work to be done in DRC required consultants with high level of proficiency in French, since this was the working language. ICDE hired a group of consultants to implement this project : the team leader for this work was ICDE Permanent Delegate at UNESCO, Dr. Bernard Loing, with Stephan and Christopher Klepsland fra Bulltech as the other members of the group.

 Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

 Background for the projects:

The projects are part of an Education sector programme of the World Bank in the DRC with a focus on basic education.  Components to include:  school reconstruction, teacher training, and provision of textbooks for primary and secondary levels.  An additional component supports strategy for the reform of higher education. In preparation for its engagement in the sector, the Bank has completed a Country Status Report (CSR), which provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the sector.  The CSR notes the low quality of education at every level and describes a challenging environment for the development of education due to the of the years of economic and political chaos, the large size of the country, its low population density as well as its cultural and ethnic diversity.

An exploratory missions to Kisangani, Lubumbashi and Kinshasa was undertaken in the context of the identified challenges to determine the potential role and feasibility of distance education and ICTs in contributing to the rehabilitation of the education system, particularly the objectives articulated in the Government’s Tertiary Education Strategy document (PADEM) which noted the country’s strategic interest in investing in IT-assisted distance education.

The assessment considered the full range of possible distance education and technology options, including radio, television, as well as state-of-the-art ICTs and identify the various ways in which they could be integrated within the country’s education strategy to help in catalyzing reform and attaining the required revitalization and continued growth of the system.  The assessment identifyed opportunities for cross-sectoral approaches to allow for synergies and integration of educational ICTs and distance education within community and poverty reduction initiatives.

At the requirement of the World Bank, all reports were written in French.

Final reports (links):

  • FAD + NTE puor le République Démocratique du Congo,
  • Reseau de Communication au Service de l’Education a Distance: Mission d’identification en République Démocratique de Congo

25 September 2005

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